nutritional and diet

Basic Nutrition And Diet Therapy

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Nutrition And Diet

Basic nutrition and diet therapy From prenatal throughout life, people must have adequate nutrition to prevent malnourishment and minimize the development of illnesses that may be worsened by poor dietary practices.

Food supports growth and development by providing the body with the nutrients needed for the production of energy, repair of damaged tissue, growth of new tissue, and regulation of physiological processes, all of which undergird full participation in the activities that constitute our days, weeks, months, and years of living.

Our food selection reflects personal, familial, and cultural traditions. As you read this chapter, keep in mind this balanced view of food as sustenance and food as a resource for the dimensions of health.

Real Life And Real Choices

Diet and Lifestyle: Finding a Healthy Balance

  • Name: Vincent and Angela Martinelli
  • Ages: 64 and 61
  • Ethnic background: Italian
  • Occupation: Restaurant owners
  • Physical characteristics: Vincent: 5’9”, one hundred eighty-nine lb. Angela: 5’2”, 143 lb.

Does anyone really know how many kinds of pasta there are in the world? If you want an expert opinion, the people to ask are Vincent and Angela Martinelli. The owners of a popular market and deli in their city’s lively Italian neighborhood. Now in their sixties, they’re beginning to talk about retiring and turning the business over to their daughter and her husband.

Diet and Real Lifestyle

Their favorite is fettuccine carbonara, which features pasta in cream sauce with bacon. At a recent checkup, the Martinellis physician found that Vincent’s serum cholesterol level is elevated to the point where heart disease is a concern;

As you study this chapter, think about some steps Vincent and Angela can take to adopt a healthier lifestyle, and prepare yourself to answer the questions in Your Turn at the end of the chapter.

As Shown in the Comparison Table Below

Types and Sources of Nutrients

Your body relies on seven nutrients to carry out its physiological functions: carbohydrates, fats, protein, vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber, and water.* The other nutrients-vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber, and water-are not sources of calories for the body.

breakfast food


Carbohydrates are various combinations of sugar units or saccharides. The body uses carbohydrates primarily for energy. Each gram of carbohydrate contains four calories. Carbohydrates occur in three forms, depending on the number of saccharides (sugar) units that make up the molecule.

Today it is recommended that about fifty-eight percent to 60 percent of our total calorie intake come from carbohydrates, with approximately 50 percent from starches and only ten percent from sugars.

  • +The tern calorie is used here to refer to kilocalorie (1,000 calories), which is the accepted scientific expression of the energy value of a food.

This simple sugar is most often derived from fruits and berries. Disaccharides are sugars composed of two monosaccharides, one of which is always a glucose unit. Sucrose is perhaps the most widely recognized disaccharide source; it is better known as table sugar.

Sucrose is a combination of glucose and a fructose molecule

Other disaccharides include maltose, derived from germinating cereals, and lactose, the carbohydrate found in human and animal milk.

The average adult American now ingests approximately 125 pounds of source each year- usually in colas, candies, and pastries, which offer few additional nutritional benefits2.

For years excess sugar concerns, including obesity, micronutrient deficiencies, behavioral disorders, dental caries, recipes for diabetics and high cholesterol Mellitus, and cardiovascular disease.

With the exception of dental caries, current scientific data fail to confirm that sugar per se directly causes any of these health problems.

Lactose-intolerant people lack an enzyme used in the digestion of this simple sugar.


Without fat, these vitamins would quickly pass through the body. Fat insulates the body and helps it retain heat. Dietary sources of fat are often difficult to identify. In selecting the type of milk ranges from skim milk (0% fat) to ultra low-fat milk (0.5%) through low-fat milk (1% to 2%) to whole milk ( 3% to 4%).

The lists the fat and calories in various kinds of milk

Complete the Personal Assessment to see whether you eat too many fatty foods. Every type of dietary fat is made up of a combination of three forms of fat (saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated), based on chemical composition.

The Best Lists Fat and Calories

Saturated fats, including those found in animal sources and in vegetable oils to which hydrogen has been added (hydrogenated), becoming trans-fatty acids, need to be carefully limited on a modern healthy diet.

The presence of trans-fatty acids ( an altered form of normal vegetable oil molecule) is associated with changes in the cell membrane, including those cells lining the artery wall. This possibly prevents these vessel wall cells from freeing cholesterol from their surfaces4.

Fortunately, the replacement of saturated fats with monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats and oils appears to lower blood cholesterol levels and reduce the risk of heart disease 5. Vegetable oils tend to be low in saturated fats, with the exception of tropical oils (coconut, palm, and palm kernel oils). Monounsaturated fats are found in high quantities in olive oil, peanut oil, and sesame oil.

(Figure 5-1)

  • Nutrients elements in foods that are required for the growth, repair, and regulation of body processes.
  • Calories units of heat (energy);
  • Carbohydrates chemical compounds comprising sugar (or saccharide) units; the body’s primary source of energy.
  • Satiety (Suh tie uh tee) a feeling of no longer being hungry; a diminished desire to eat.

*Skimming Off Fat, Calories, and Cholesterol

Below is a comparison of calories, fat, and low cholesterol protein in I cup of several types of milk:

  • Whole. 150 calories, eight grams of fat, 5 grams of saturated fat, 33 mg of cholesterol
  • 2%. 120 calories, 5 grams of fat, 3 grams of saturated fat. eighteen mg of cholesterol
  • 1%. hundred calories, 2.5 grams of fat, 1.5 grams of saturated fat, ten mg of cholesterol
  • Skim. eighty calories, 0 fat, 0 saturated fat, 4 mg of cholesterol

Tropical Oils

All oils and fats contain varying percentages of saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fats.

Saturated fats are known to elevate blood cholesterol levels and increase the chances of developing heart disease.

Coconut oil is 92 percent saturated fat(see Figure 5-1). Do you check for tropical oils on the ingredients labels of the foods you select?

dietary fats scaled

Figure 5-1 Comparison of dietary fats. (Fatty acid content normalized to a hundred %.)


Cholesterol is a necessary constituent of all animal tissue and is synthesized by our own bodies from carbohydrates and fats.

Considerable evidence suggests that increased intake of saturated fats may increase serum (blood) cholesterol levels7.

  • Saturated fats that are difficult for the body to use; these are fats in solid form at room temperature primarily animal fats.
  • Cholesterol a primary form of fat found in the blood; li[id material manufactured within the body, as well as derived from dietary sources.

Personal Assessment

Do You Have Fatty Habits?

Fat has earned a bad reputation because of the health problems to which it contributes when we eat too much of it. The questionnaire below will help you think about the amounts and types of fat that you generally eat.

For each general type of food or food habits, circle the response category that is most typical for you. If you never or almost never eat any items of a particular food type, just skip that type.


Food type/habit of high fatHigh fatMedium fatLow fat
Chickenfried withbaked, broiled, or barbecued with the skinbaked, broiled, or barbecued without the skin
Fat present on meansUsually, eatSometimes eatNever eat
Fat used in cooking Butter, lard, bacon grease, chicken fatMargarine, oilNonstick cooking spray or no fat used
Additions to rice, bread, potatoes, vegetables, etc.Butter, lard, bacon grease, chicken fat, coconut oil, cream cheeseMargarine, oil, peanut butterButter-flavored granules or no fat used
Pizza toppings Sausage, pepperoni, extra cheese, combinationCanadian baconVegetable
Sandwich spreadsMayonnaise or mayonnaise-type dressing Light mayonnaise, oil, and vinegarMustard, fat-free mayonnaise
Milk and milk products (e.g., yogurt) Whole milk and whole-milk products Low-fat milk and milk productsSkim milk and milk products
Sandwich side ordersChips, potato salad, macaroni salad with creamy dressing Coleslaw, pasta salad with a clear dressing Vegetable sticks, pretzels, pickle
Salad dressings Blue cheese, ranch, Thousand Island, another creamy typeoil and vinegar, clear-base dressingOil-free dressing, lemon juice, flavored vinegar
Typical meat protein is eaten6-8 ounces or more4-5 ounces2-3 ounces
Sandwich fillingsbeef or pork hot dogs, salami, bologna, pepperoni, cheese, tuna or chicken saladTurkey hot dogs, 85% fat-free lunch meats, corned beef, peanut butter, hummus (chickpea paste)95% fat-free lunch meats, roast turkey, roast beef, lean ham
Ground meatsRegular ground beef, sausage meat, ground meat, ground pork (about 30% fat)Lean ground beef, ground chuck, turkey sausage meat (20%-25% fat)Ground turkey, extra-lean ground beef, ground beef, ground round (about 15% fat)
Deep-fried foods (e.g., french fries, onion rings, fish or chicken patties, egg rolls, tempura)Eat every dayEat once a weekEat once a month or never


Food Type/HabitHigh FatMedium Fat Low Fat
Bread for sandwichesCroissantBiscuit Whole wheat, French, tortilla, pita or pocket bread, bagel, sourdough, or English muffin
CheesesHard cheeses (e.g., cheddar, Swiss, provolone, jack, American, processed)Part-skim mozzarella, part-skim ricotta, low-fat cheesesNonfat cheeses, nonfat cottage cheese, no cheese
Frozen dessertsPremium or regular ice creamIce milk or low-fat frozen yogurt Sherbet, Italian water ice, nonfat frozen yogurt, frozen fruit whip
Coffee lightenersCream, liquid or powdered creamerWhole milk Low-fat or skim milk
Snacks Chips, pies, cheese and crackers, nuts, donuts, microplate, granola barsMuffins,farberware air fryer toaster oven pastries, unbuttered commercial popcornPretzels, vegetable sticks, fresh or dried fruit, air-popped popcorn, breadsticks, jelly beans, hard candy
CookiesChocolate coated, coated, chocolate chip, peanut butter, filled sandwich-typeOatmeal Ginger snaps, vanilla wafers, graham crackers, animal crackers, fruit newtons

Scoring: (__* 2) + (__*1) + (__0)=


Once you have completed the questionnaire, count the number of circles in each column and calculate your score as follows: multiply the number of choices in the left-hand (high-fat) column by 2 and multiply the number of choices in the middle by 1. Any number of choices in the right-hand column will equal 0.

  • Less than ten= Excellent fat habits
  • ten to 20 = Good fat habits
  • 20 to 30 = Need to trim some fat
  • Over 30 = very high fat diet

If your score is 20 or above, try to substitute more foods from the middle (medium fat) column or, better still, the right (low fat) column for foods in the left-hand (high fat) column.

However, after an extensive investigation, the relationship between the intake of dietary cholesterol and serum cholesterol levels remains unclear. Nevertheless, most doctors still recommended that people restrict their dietary intake of cholesterol to 300 mg or less per day, reduce total fat and saturated fat intake, and exercise regularly.

High-cholesterol foods include whole milk, shellfish, animal fat, and egg yolks. Only foods of animal origin can contain cholesterol. Thus, labels that appear on foods such as peanut butter and margarine trumpeting “cholesterol-free” are overstating the obvious.

It should be noted, however, that even foods high in cholesterol, such as shellfish, may provide other important nutrients and, therefore, could remain in a healthy diet but on a more modest basis.

Low-fat foods

Reflecting our growing concern about the role of dietary fats in many health problems has been the explosion of fat-free, low-fat, or reduced-fat food items appearing in stores and restaurants.

As favorable as this trend might be, however, it is important to remember that these food items may still be high in calories and, therefore, should not be consumed in large amounts just because of their lower-fat formulation.

Fat-Free Substitutes

Newly developed fat-free products containing fat substitutes (Simplesse, simple Pleasures, Olestra, and Trailblazer) are available or soon to be available in the marketplace.

At the time of this writing, products containing Olestra (marketed as Olean), such as MAX snacks by Frito-Lay and Fat-Free Pringles, have been well received in test-marketed areas and will be distributed nationwide shortly.

These new products contain no cholesterol and have eighty percent fewer calories than similar products made with fat.

Although Olestra-containing items appeared first in snack foods such as those just mentioned, it will soon be much more widely used.

New fat-free products containing Olestra-like substitutes will range from foods such as ice cream, salad dressing, cheese spreads, and yogurt to cakes, pies, and french fries9.

The development of Olestra, as an example, required more than twenty-five years and $200 million on the part of Proctor & Gamble, as an array of new technologies were required.

New Fat-Free Substitutes

In general, fat-free substitutes are made through processes called micro articulation, in which several fatty acids are bonded to a sugar molecule to create a triglyceride-like molecule that imparts all of the characteristics of fats but is incapable of being enzymatically broken down by the body as are the triglycerides9.

In spite of the apparent desirability of the fat-free technology, some people have raised concerns regarding the inability of these “nouveau fats” to carry fat-soluble vitamins (vitamins A, D, E, and K).

Additional concern over side effects in some people, such as abdominal cramping, loose stools, anal leakage, and an unpleasant aftertaste, has also been raised.

One consumer group, the Center for Science in the Public Interest, has requested that the FDA rescind its approval of Olestra9.

A member of the FDA’s advisory panel also expressed concern about Olean’s safety ten. At this time only a warning label describing the side effects must appear on products made on with Olean.


The tern protein is derived from a word meaning “first importance.” Proteins are manufactured in every living cell; they are composed of chains of amino acids. Amino acids are the “bricks” from which the body constructs its own protein.

Twenty amino acids are used in various combinations to build the proteins required for physiological processes to continue in a healthy manner.

The human body obtains amino acids from two sources-by breakings down protein from food (as if to take a brick wall apart for its bricks) or by manufacturing its own bricks (amino acids) within its cells.

The latter process is less than fully successful because only eleven of the necessary twenty amino acids can be built by the body are called essential amino acids (indispensable amino acids) because they must be obtained from outside the body through the protein in food.

The eleven amino acids that the body itself can make are called nonessential amino acids (dispensable amino acids) because the body does not have to rely solely on food protein to obtain this bricks6.

Complete Protein

In terms of food sources of amino acids, foods can be classified into one of two types, depending on whether they can supply the body with the essential amino acids or not.

Complete protein foods contain all nine essential amino acids within their protein and are of animal origin (milk, meat, cheese, and eggs).

The incomplete protein foods do not contain all of the essential amino acids and are of plant origin (vegetables, grains, and legumes [peas or beans, including chickpeas, butter beans, and tofu]). (Learn more You can visit blender food processor combo)

This requires the careful selection of plant foods in combinations that will provide all of the essential amino acids.

The list below shows many usable combinations that include legumes and grains:

  • Sunflower seeds/green peas
  • Navy beans/barley
  • Green peas/corn
  • Red beans/rice
  • Sesame seeds/soybeans
  • Black-eyed peas/ rice and peanuts
  • Green peas/rice
  • Corn/pinto beans

Protein serves primarily to promote the growth and maintenance of body tissue.

This loss of protein can impede the growth and repair of tissue. From this, it can be seen that adequate carbohydrate intake prevents the protein from serving as an energy source6.

Nutritionists recommend that 15 percent of our caloric intake be from protein.

Malnutrition is the world’s underdeveloped countries is often seen in the protein deficiency disease called kwashiorkor.

This disease is rarely seen in countries that have an abundant supply of protein.


Vitamins serve as coenzymes. By facilitating the action of enzymes, vitamins help initiate a wide variety of body responses and the growth of healthy tissue.

Discovered just after the turn of the twentieth century, vitamins can be classified as water-soluble (capable of being dissolved in water) or fat-soluble (capable of being dissolved in fat or lipid tissue). Water-soluble vitamin C.

The fat-soluble vitamins are A, D, E, and K.

These vitamins are stored in the body in the adipose tissue or fat with excessive intake. Table 5-1 shows that all of the fat-soluble vitamins hold the potential for toxicity if taken in amounts that far exceed recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) (see Table 5-2A, B, and C). Most toxicity results from the use of supplements by adults or through excessive food intake of particular sources in very small children.

The extent to which toxicity from water-soluble vitamins can occur is somewhat open to debate. For adults, intake of this level would occur only through the excessive use of supplements. Even soaking sliced fresh fruit or vegetables can result in the loss of vitamins C and B-complex vitamins.

Health experts recommended that people drink (or use in cooking) any water in which fresh market super veggie salad recipe was boiled or steamed. To ensure an adequate vitamin intake, do not rely on bottled vitamins sold in grocery or health food stores.

The best way is really the simplest and least expensive way: Eat a variety of foods

Clearly, the antioxidation properties of vitamins A, C, and E most keenly interest health experts today

  • Protein compounds composed of chains of amino acids; primary components of muscle and connective tissue.
  • Amino acids the building blocks of protein; manufactured by the body or obtained from dietary sources.
  • Vitamin organic compounds that facilitate the action of enzymes.
  • Hypervitaminosis excessive accumulation of vitamins within the body; associated with the fat-soluble vitamins.

Table 5-1

The Fat-Soluble Vitamin Their Functions, Deficiency Conditions, and Food Sources

VitaminMajor FunctionsDeficiency SymptomsPeople Most at RiskDietary SourcesRDAToxicity Symptoms
Vitamin A (retinoids) and Provitamin A (carotenoids)1. Vision, light, and color
2.Promotes growth
3.Prevents drying of skin and eyes
4.Promotes resistance to bacterial infection
1.Night blindness 2.Xerophthalmia
3.Poor growth
4.Dry skin (keratinization)
people in poverty, especially preschool children (still very rare)Vitamin A Liver Fortified milk Provitamin A Sweet potatoes Spinach Greens Carrots Cantaloupe Apricots BroccoliWomen: 800 RE (4000 IU) Men: 1000 RE (5000 IU)Fetal malformations, hair loss, skin changes, pain in bones
Vitamin D (cholecalciferol and ergocalciferol)1.Facilitates absorption of calcium and phosphorus
2.Maintains optimum calcification of bone
Breastfed infants, elderly shut-insVitamin D- fortified milk Fish oils Tuna fish Salmon5-10 micrograms (200-400 IU)Growth retardation, kidney damage, calcium deposits in soft tissue
Vitamin E (tocopherols, tocotrienols)1.Antioxidant: prevents the breakdown of vitamin A and unsaturated fatty acids1.Hemolysis of red blood cells
2.Nerve destruction
People with poor fat absorption (still very rare)Vegetable oils Some greens Some fruitsWomen: 8 a-tocopherol equivalents Men: 10 a-tocopherol equivalentsMuscle weakness, headaches, fatigue, nausea, inhibition of vitamin K metabolism
Vitamin K (phylloquinone and menaquinone)1.Helps prothrombin and other factors for blood clotting 1.HemorrhagePeople taking antibiotics for months at a timeGreen vegetable Liver60-80 microgramsAnemia and jaundice

RE, Retinol equivalents; IU, international units.

Table 5-1A

Adult Recommended Dietary Allowances,1 Revised one thousand ninety hundred eighty-nine

Vitamin A
(ug RE)3
Vitamin D
Vitamin E
(ug a-TE)5
Vitamin K
Lactating1st 6 Months
2nd 6 Months
  • 1The allowances, expressed as average daily intakes over time, are intended to provide for individual variations among most normal people as they live in the United States under usual environment stresses. Diets should be based on a variety of common foods to provide nutrients for which human requirements have been less well defined. See text for a detailed discussion of allowances and of nutrients not tabulated.
  • 2Weights and heights of reference adults are actual medians for the U.S. population of the designated age, as reported by NHANES II. The use of these figures does not imply that the height-to-weight ratios are ideal.

Table 5-2A


(mg NE)6
  • 3Retinol equivalents. 1 retinol=1 ug retinol or 6 GB-carotene.
  • 4As cholecalciferol. ten ugs cholecalciferol= 400 IU of vitamin D.
  • 5a-Tocopherol equivalents. 1 mg d-a tocopherol= 1 a-TE.
  • 6 1 NE (niacin equivalent) is equal to 1 mg of niacin or 60 mg of dietary tryptophan.

Table 5-2B

Estimated Safe and Adequate Daily Dietary Intakes (ESADDIs) of Selected Vitamin and Minerals for Adults*

Biotin (ug)Pantothenic acid (mg)Copper (mg)Manganese (mg)Fluoride (mg)Chromium (mg)Molybdenum (ug)
  • +Because the toxic levels for many trace elements may be only several times the usual intake, the upper levels for the trace elements given in this table should not be habitually exceeded.

Table 5-2C

Estimated Minimum Sodium, Chloride, and Potassium Requirements of Healthy people*

AgeWeight (kg)*Sodium (mg)*+Chloride (mg)*+Potassium (mg)++
  • *No allowance has been included for large, prolonged losses from the skin through sweat.
  • +There is no evidence that higher intakes confer any health benefit.
  • ++Desirable intakes of potassium considerably exceed these values (~3500 mg for adults).
  • $$No allowance included for growth. Values for those below eighteen years assume a growth rate at the 50th percentile, reported by the National Center for Health Statistics and averaged for men and women.

Table 5-3

The Water-Soluble Vitamin, Their Functions, Deficiency Conditions, and Food Sources

VitaminMajor FunctionsDeficiency SymptomsPeople Most at RiskDietary SourcesRDA or ESADDIToxicity
ThiaminCoenzyme involved with enzymes in the carbohydrate metabolism; nerve functionBeriberi, nervous tingling, poor coordination, edema, heart changes, weaknessPeople with alcoholism, people in povertySunflower seeds, pork, whole, and enriched grains, dried beans, peas, brewer’s yeast1.1-1.5 milligramsNone possible from food
RiboflavinCoenzyme involved in energy metabolismInflammation of mouth and tongue, cracks at corners of the mouth, eye disordersPossibly people on certain medications if no dairy products consumedMilk, mushrooms, spinach, liver, enriched grains1.2-1.7 milligramsNone reported
NiacinCoenzyme involved in energy metabolism. fat synthesis, fat breakdownPellagra, diarrhea, dermatitis, dementiaPeople in severe poverty where corn is dominant food, people with alcoholismMushrooms, bran, tuna, salmon, chicken, beef, liver, peanuts, enriched grains15-19 milligramsFlushing of skin at >100 milligrams
Pantothenic acidCoenzyme involved in energy metabolism, fat synthesis, fat breakdownUsing an antagonist causes tingling in hands, fatigue, headache, nauseaPeople with alcoholismMushrooms, liver, broccoli, eggs; most foods have some4-7 milligramsNone
BiotinCoenzyme involved in glucose production, fat synthesisDermatitis, tongue soreness, anemia, depressionPeople with alcoholismCheese, egg yolks, cauliflower, peanut butter, liver30-100 microgramsUnknown


Nearly 5 percent of the body is composed of inorganic materials, the minerals. Minerals function primarily as structural elements ( in teeth, muscles, hemoglobin, and thyroid hormones.) Approximately twenty-one minerals have been recognized as being essential minerals for human health6.

Macronutrients (major minerals ) are those minerals that are seen in relatively high amounts in our body tissues. Examples of macronutrients are calcium, phosphorus, sulfur, sodium, potassium, and magnesium.

Examples of micronutrients, minerals seen in relatively small amounts in body tissues, include zinc, iron, copper, selenium, and iodine. (See Tables 5-4 and 5-five for listings of minerals and their functions.) As with vitamins, the safest, most appropriate way to receive a sufficient amount of all necessary minerals is to eat a balanced diet.

Trace elements minerals whose presence in the body occurs in very small amounts; micronutrient elements.

Table 5-3


VitaminMajor FunctionsDeficiency SymptomsPeople Most at RiskDietary SourcesRDA or ESADDIToxicity
Vitamin B6, pyridoxine, and other formsCoenzyme involved in protein metabolism, neurotransmitter synthesis, hemoglobin synthesis many other functionsHeadache, anemia, convulsions, nausea, vomiting, flaky skin, sore tongueAdolescent and adult women, people on certain medications, people with alcoholismAnimal protein foods, spinach, broccoli, bananas, salmon, sunflower seeds1.8-2 milligramsNerve destruction at doses>100 milligrams
Folate (folic acid)Coenzyme involved in DNA synthesisMegaloblastic anemia, inflammation of tongue diarrhea, poor growth, mental disordersPeople with alcoholism, pregnant women, people taking certain medicationsGreen leafy vegetables, orange juice, organ meats. sprouts, sunflower seeds180-200 microgramsNone, nonprescription vitamin dosage is controlled by FDA
Vitamin B12 (cobalamins)Coenzyme involved in folate metabolism, nerve functionMacrocytic anemia, poor nerve functionElderly because of poor absorption, vegansAnimal foods, especially organ meats, oysters, clams (B12 not plant foods)2 microgramsNone
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)Collagen synthesis, hormone synthesis, neurotransmitter synthesisScurvy: poor wound healing, pinpoint hemorrhages, bleeding gums, edemaPeople with alcoholism, elderly men living aloneCitrus fruits, strawberries, broccoli, greens60 milligramsDoses>1-2 grams cause diarrhea and can alter some diagnostic tests

Table 5-4

Key Trace Minerals

MineralMajor FunctionsDeficiency SymptomsPeople Most at RiskRDA or ESADDINutrient-Dense Dietary SourcesResults of Toxicity
IronPart of hemoglobin and other key compounds used in respiration; used for immune function Low serum iron levels, small, pale red blood cells, low blood hemoglobin valuesInfants, preschool children, adolescents, women in childbearing yearsMen: 10 milligrams Women: 15 milligramsMeats, spinach, seafood, broccoli, peas, bran, enriched breadToxicity is seen in children who consume 200-400 milligrams in iron pills and in people with hemochromatosis; in this latter case, people over-absorb iron
ZincOver 200 enzymes need zinc, including enzymes involved in growth, immunity, alcohol metabolism, sexual development, and reproductionSkin rash, diarrhea, decreased appetite and sense of taste, hair loss, poor growth and development, poor wound healingVegetarians, women in general, the elderlyMen: 15 milligrams Women: 12 milligramsSeafood, meats, greens, whole grainsReduces iron and copper absorption; can cause diarrhea, cramps, and depressed immune function
SeleniumPart of the antioxidant systemMuscle pain, muscle weakness, heart diseaseUnknown55-70 microgramsMeats, eggs, fish, seafood, whole grainsNausea, vomiting, hair loss, weakness, liver disease
IodidePart of thyroid hormoneGoiter, poor growth in infancy when the mother is deficient in pregnancyNone in America, since salt is usually fortified150 microgramsIodized salt, white bread, saltwater fish, dairy productsInhibition of function of the thyroid gland
CopperAids in iron metabolism works with many enzymes, such as those involved in protein metabolism and hormone synthesisAnemia, low white blood cell count, poor growthInfants recovering from malnutrition, people who use overzealous supplementation of zinc1.5-3 milligramsLiver, cocoa, beans, nuts, whole grains, dried fruitsVomiting, nervous system disorders

Table 5-4

Key Trace Minerals— Continued

MineralMajor FunctionsDeficiency SymptomsPeople Most at RiskRDA or ESADDINutrient-Dense Dietary SourcesResults of Toxicity
FluorideIncreases resistance of tooth enamel to dental cariesIncreased risk of dental cariesThe area where water is not fluoridated and dental treatment does not make up for this lack of fluoride1.5-4 milligramsFluoridated water, toothpaste, dental treatments, tea, seaweedStomach upset, mottling (staining) of teeth during development
ChromiumEnhances blood glucose levelsHigh blood glucose levels after eatingPeople on total parenteral nutrition and perhaps elderly people with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus50-200 microgramsEggs yolks, whole grains, porkCaused by industrial contamination, not dietary excess
ManganeseAids action of some enzymes, such as those involved in carbohydrate metabolismNone in humansUnknown 2-5 milligramsNuts, rice, oats, beansUnknown in humans
MolybdenumAids in the action of some enzymesNone in humansUnknown 75-250 microgramBeans, grains, nutsUnknown in humans

Table 5-five

Water and the Major Minerals

NameMajor FunctionsDeficiency SymptomsPeople Most at RiskRDA of Minimum RequirementNutrient-Dense Dietary SourcesResults of Toxicity
WaterMedium for chemical reactions, removal of waste products, perspiration to cool the bodyThirst, muscle weakness, poor enduranceInfants with a fever, elderly in nursing homes1 milliliter per calorie burned*As such and in foodsProbably occurs only in mental disorders: headache, blurred vision, convulsions
SodiumA major ion of the extracellular fluid; nerve impulse transmissionMuscle crampsPeople who severely restrict sodium to lower blood pressure (250-500 milligrams/ day) 500 milligramsTable salt, processed foodsHigh blood pressure in susceptible individuals

Table 5-five

Water and the Major Minerals —Continued

NameMajor FunctionsDeficiency SymptomsPeople Most at RiskRDA or Minimum RequirementNutrient-Dense Dietary SourcesResults of Toxicity
PotassiumA major ion of intracellular fluid; nerve impulse transmissionIrregular heartbeat, loss of appetite, muscle crampsPeople who use potassium-wasting diuretics or have poor diets, as seen in poverty and with alcoholism2000 milligramsSpinach, squash, bananas, orange juice, other vegetables and fruits, milkSlowing of the heartbeat; seen in kidney failure
ChlorideA major ion of the extracellular fluid; acid production in the stomach; nerve transmissionConvulsions in infantsNo one, probably, when infant formula manufacturers control product quality adequately700 milligramsTable salt, some vegetablesHigh blood pressure in susceptible people when combined with sodium
CalciumBone and tooth strength; blood clotting; nerve impulse transmission; muscle contractions; cell regulationPoor increase the risk for osteoporosisWomen in general, especially those who constantly restrict their energy intake and consume few dairy products800 milligrams (older than 24 years old)Dairy products, canned fish, leafy vegetables, tofu, fortified orange juiceVery high intakes may cause kidney stones in susceptible people
PhosphorusBone and tooth strength; part of various metabolic compounds; major ion of intracellular fluidProbably none, poor bone maintenance possibleElderly consuming very nutrient-poor diets, possibly vegetarians and those with alcoholism 800 milligrams (older than 24 years)Dairy products, processed foods, fish, soft drinksHampers bone health in people with kidney failure; poor bone mineralization if calcium intakes are low
MagnesiumBone strength; enzyme function, nerve and heart functionWeakness, muscle pain, poor heart functionPeople on thiazide diuretics, women in generalMen: 350 milligrams Women: 280 milligramsWheat bran, green vegetable nuts, chocolateCauses weakness in people with kidney failure
SulfurPart of vitamins and amino acids; acid-base balanceNonePeople who do not meet their protein needsNoneProtein foodNone likely


Water provides the medium for nutrient and waste transport and temperature control and plays a key role in nearly all of the body’s biochemical reactions. A common indication of inadequate fluid intake is strained, uncomfortable bowel movements.

Most people seldom think about the importance of an adequate intake of water and fluids. Adults require about six to ten glasses a day, depending on their exercise level and environment. People who drink beverages that tend to dehydrate the body (tea, coffee, and alcohol) should increase their water consumption.


Cereal, fruits, and vegetables all provide us with dietary fiber. Fiber can be classified into two large groups on the basis of water solubility. Insoluble fibers are those that can absorb water from the intestinal tract.

By absorbing water, the insoluble fibers give the stool bulk and decrease the time it takes the stool bulk and decrease the time it takes the stool to move through the digestive tract.

Best Fiber

In recent years attention has been directed towered three forms of soluble fiber-oat bran, psyllium (from the forms plantain), and rice bran- for their ability to lower blood cholesterol levels.

To accomplish a five- to six- point lowering in cholesterol, daily consumption of oat bran equaling a large bowl of oat bran cold cereal or three or more packs of instant oatmeal would be necessary. The role of psyllium and rice bran in lowering cholesterol levels is less well established.

The Absorption of Nutrients

Figure 5-2 depicts a highly diagrammatic representation of the GI tract showing specific absorption sites for several important nutrients.

The first eighteen inches of the small intestine is the most active site for absorption, surpassing the level of activity in the remainder of the small intestine, the large intestine, and stomach.

The Food Groups

Today, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Food Guide pyramid outlines five groups for which recommendations have been established and an additional group (fats, oils, and sweets ) for which no specific recommendations exist

(Figure 503). Table 506 summarizes the major nutrients each food group supplies. To determine whether you are eating a healthful diet balanced with choices from each food group, complete the personal Assessment.

  • Dehydration abnormal depletion of fluids from the body; severe dehydration can lead to death.
  • Fiber cellulose-based plant material that cannot be digested; found in cereal, fruits, and vegetables.
  • Balanced diet a diet featuring food selections from each food group.

Figure 5-2 Important sites of nutrient absorption along the gastrointestinal tract. The size of the arrow indicates the relative amounts of absorption at that site. (Note that this drawing depicts the GI tract as being “uncoiled” to simplify the presentation of its absorption sites.)


Two to four daily servings from the fruit group are recommended for an adult. The important function of this group is to provide vitamin A, vitamin C, complex carbohydrates, and fiber in our diets.

The American Cancer Society indicates that this food group may play an important role in the prevention of certain forms of cancer. Included foods are citrus fruits and fruit juices. Two to four servings per day are recommended. One serving is equivalent to one medium apple, banana, or orange; ½ cup of chopped, cooked, or canned fruit; or ¾ cup of fruit juice.

Table 5-6

Guide to Daily Food Choices

Food GroupServingMajor ContributionsFoods and Serving Size*
Milk, yogurt, and cheese2 (adult+)
3 (children, teens, young adults, and pregnant or lactating women)
Calcium Riboflavin Protein Potassium Zinc1 cup milk
1 ½ oz cheese
2 oz processed cheese
1 cup yogurt
2 cups of cottage cheese
1 cup custard/pudding
1 ½ cups ice cream
Meat, poultry, fish, dry beans, eggs, and nuts2-3Protein Niacin Iron Vitamin B6
Vitamin B12++
2-3 oz cooked meat, poultry, fish
1 – ½ cups cooked dry beans
4t peanut butter
2 eggs
½ -1 cup nuts
Fruits2-4Vitamin C
¼ cup of dried fruit
½ cup cooked fruit
¾ cup juice
1 whole piece of fruit
1 melon wedge
Vegetables3-5Vitamin A
Vitamin C
½ cup raw or cooked vegetables
1 cup of raw leafy vegetables
Bread, cereals, rice, and pasta6-11Starch
Magnesium | |
Fiber | |
Zinc | |
1 slice of bread
1 oz ready-to-eat cereal
½ – ¾ cup cooked cereal, rice, or pasta
Fats, oils, and sweetsFoods from this group should not replace any of the other groups. Amounts consumed should be determined by individual energy needs

Daily Food Choices

This is a practical way to turn the RDA into food choices. You can get all the essential nutrients by eating a balanced variety of foods each day from the food groups listed here.
Eat a variety of foods in each food s in each food group, and adjust serving sizes appropriately to reach and maintain a desirable weight.
  • *Maybe reduced for children’s servings.
  • +>25 years of age.
  • ++Only in animal food choices.
  • $ If enriched.


Three to five servings from the vegetable group are recommended for an adult. As with the fruit group, the important function of this group is to provide vitamin A, vitamin C, complex carbohydrates, and fiber.

Food included in this group are dark green, yellow, and orange vegetables, canned or cooked vegetables, and tossed salads. On the basis of current recommendations, people should include three to five servings per day in their diets. One serving consists of 1 cup of raw, leafy vegetables, ½ cup of vegetables, cooked or chopped raw, or ¾ cup of vegetable juice.

A recent study of young people from two years of age to eighteen years found only 20 percent meet this recommendation and that 25 percent of all the vegetables consumed was in the form of french fries eighteen.

Figure 5-3 The USDA Food Guide Pyramid.

Milk, Cheese, and Yogurt

The milk, cheese, and yogurt group contribute two primary nutritional benefits: high-quality protein and calcium (required for bone and tooth development). Foods included in this group are whole milk, low-fat milk, yogurt, cheese, and ice cream.

The adult recommendation is two to three cups of milk or two to three equivalent servings from this group each day. For teenagers, the recommendation is four cups of milk each day.

Recently, some physicians have begun recommending that premenopausal women consume three to four servings from this group to provide maximal protection from osteoporosis.

One serving equals 1 cup of milk or yogurt, 1.5 ounces of natural cheese, or 2 ounces of processed cheese. In November of 1996, the FDA released new, more consumer-friendly labels for some milk products.

Meat, Poultry, Fish, Eggs, Dry Beans, and Nuts

Our need for daily selections from this protein-rich group is based on our daily need for protein, iron, and B vitamins.

Meats include all red meat (beef, pork, and game), fish, and poultry. Meat substitutes include cheese, dried peas and beans (legumes), and peanut butter. The current recommendation for an adult is four ounces total meat, poultry, or fish per day, preferably in two to three servings.

One serving from this group consists of two to three ounces of cooked lean meat, poultry, or fish. One-half cup of cooked dry beans or one egg counts as one ounce of lean meat. The Health Action Guide on this page lists the USDA guidelines for the sale handing of meat.

See Related

  1. Physical Fitness Merit Badge – Your Ultimate Guide in 2021
  2. Physical Activities are Exercise Programs and Sports Activities.

The fat content of meat varies considerably. Interestingly, the higher the grade of red meat, the more fat will be marbled throughout the muscle fiber, and the higher will be it’s fat and caloric content.

Vegetables provide vitamins, complex carbohydrates, and fiber and may help prevent some types of cancer. Are you eating three to five servings a day?

Personal Assessment

Seven-Day Diet Study

A primary requirement for good nutrition is a balanced diet. A variety of food selections forms the basis of this diet. Record your points in the appropriate column for each day. Total your daily and weekly points. Negative points for junk food consumption should be subtracted from your daily and weekly totals.

FoodPointsMaximum Score
Milk and milk products
One cup of milk or equivalent
Second cup of milk
The third cup of milk
Protein-rich foods
One serving of eggs, meat, fish, poultry cheese, dried beans, or peas.
One or two additi0onal serving of eggs, meat fish, poultry, or cheese
10 each
Fruits and vegetables
One serving of green or yellow vegetables
One serving of citrus fruit, tomato, or cabbage
Two or more serving of other fruits and vegetables, including potatoes
5 each
Bread and cereals
Four or more serving of whole-grain or enriched cereal or bread
5 each15
Junk foods (or negative point value foods) Sweet rolls
Fruit pies
Potato chips, corn chips, or cheese curls
Nondiet sodas
Point RecordInterpretation
Weekly point total600-700 Excellent dietary practices
Negative point total450-599 Adequate dietary practices
The adjusted weekly point total300-449 Marginal dietary practices
Below 300 Poor dietary practices

Bread, Cereals, Rice, and Pasta

The nutritional benefit from the bread, cereals, rice, and pasta group lies in its contribution to B-complex vitamins and energy from its complex carbohydrates. Six to eleven servings daily from this group are recommended.

Milling of cereal grains into flour tends to deplete important nutrients, including fiber, vitamin B6, vitamin E, magnesium, and various trace elements. The process of enrichment returns only four of these nutrients: thiamine, niacin, riboflavin (all B vitamins), and the mineral iron. The cereal germ, the fiber, and additional nutrients are not destroyed.

See also: can you cook pasta in a rice cooker

Fats, Oils, and Sweets

Where do such items as beer, butter, candy, colas, cookies, corn chips, and pastries fit into your diet? Today they are included under the label “ fats, oils, and sweets”. As you will, people who are salt-sensitive must reduce their salt intake as a step in preventing the development of high blood pressure. It is not surprising that many of these items are referred to collectively as junk foods.

Understandably, the processed-food industry encourages this empty-calorie approach to eat. Many vending machines are filled with relatively expensive junk foods.

lamb burgers

Most fast foods have a high fat density. Can you think of alternative foods you could eat on the go if you planned ahead?

Fast Foods

Fast foods are convenience foods usually prepared in a walk-in or drive-through restaurant. (See details of the raw vegan bodybuilding meal plan).

In comparison to the recommended standard (25% to 30% of total calories from fat), depicted in Figure 5-4, 40 percent to 50 percent of the calories in fast foods are obtained from fats. A conversion some years ago from animal fat to vegetable oil for frying (to reduce cholesterol levels) did not alter the fat-dense nature of these food items.

Best Fast Food

On the more positive side, fast-food restaurants have broadened their menus to include whole-wheat bread and rolls, salad bars, and low-fat milk products. Many of the larger fast-food restaurants provide nutritional information for consumers upon request or from well-stocked racks. Extra cheese and more french fries, plus bacon to change the flavor of a meal, are inexpensive ways to raise profit margins20.

  • Fat density, the percentage of a food’s total calories that are derived from fat; above 30 percent reflects higher fat density.

Facts about Fast Foods Will you stop at a fast-food restaurant today? (1) Can fast foods be part of a balanced diet? (2) Do I realize how fat-dense this meal will be?

Figure 5-4 Where do your calories come from? This figure compares our present sources of calories with the sources that are currently recommended by nutritionists.


In recent years a large group of physically active components thought to be able to deactivate carcinogens or function as antioxidants have been identified in a variety of fruits and vegetables.

Among these are the carotenoids (from green vegetables), polyphenols (from onions and garlic ), indoles (from cruciferous vegetables), and the allyl sulfides (from garlic, chives, and onions ).

These phytochemicals may play an important role in reducing the risk of cancer in people who consume a large number of foods (vegetarian or semivegetarian diets) from this two food groups21.

22 Whether the recommended minimum number of servings from the fruit and vegetable groups will be increased based on this new information remains to be seen.

Food Additives

Today’s food manufacturers add chemical compounds to the food supply for several reasons that they believe consumers support: The Food Additives Amendment and the Color Additives Amendment (1960) to the federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act require that new additives to the food supply be safe for human consumption.

The process through which the manufacturer must go to gain approval is lengthy and expensive. Even compounds that have long been “generally recognized as safe” by experts are now undergoing reevaluation through modern laboratory technology.

Food additives chemical compounds that are intentionally or unintentionally added to our food supply.

Learning From Our Diversity Eating Ethnic-The Healthy Way

You’re likely to hear a list that includes such quintessentially American favorites as meatloaf, mashed potatoes and gravy, chicken pot pie, hearty beef stew, and homemade fudge layer cake.

Today, as we near the end of the twentieth century, our food focus is firmly on ethnic dishes, with their novel flavors and textures, their exotic spices, their alluringly foreign names. It’s true that many ethnic cuisines feature generous servings of vegetables, with just a bit of fish, meat, or poultry, plus spices, for flavor.

Good examples are the cuisines of China, the Mediterranean, and the Pacific Rim.

Too many healthy ethnic favorites have crossed the ocean to America, only to be transformed into barely recognizable versions of themselves that are loaded with the sodium, sugar, and fat we seem to crave.

Stick with fresh steamed vegetables-skip the sugary sweet and sour glaze-have a small amount of lean meat or fish, a serving of plain rice (not fried), and try eating with chopsticks. What are your favorite ethnic foods? Why do you like them? In what ways might the ethnic foods you love have been modified to appeal to American tastes?

Food Labels

Revised labels began appearing on food packages in May 1993. The newly adopted label is shown in Figure 5-five. Specific types of information contained on the new label are highlighted. Proposals for the labeling of raw foods, including fresh produce, meat, and seafood, are now being studied.

Concern for consumer protection stems from recent disclosures regarding inadequate meat inspection, undercooking of hamburgers, and the risk of contaminated seafood. Currently, single-ingredients meat, fish, and poultry products are not required to have a label.

Figure 5-five Nutrition Facts panel. A Top of the panel; B, the bottom of the panel.

Guidelines for Dietary Health

For decades the American public has received dietary guidelines from a variety of professional and government groups. In most cases, these guidelines have been generated by concerns over the actual dietary practices that should be followed on the basis of scientific understanding.

The newest version appeared in 1995 as the fourth edition of Nutrition and Your Health: Dietary Guidelines for Americans3. Information contained within these guidelines was extracted from a variety of sources, including the Surgeon general’s Report on Nutrition and Health.

Dietary Health

  • Eat a variety of foods. At the very heart of these dietary guidelines, and virtually all others, is the contention that a wide variety of food from each food group is necessary for people to achieve a truly balanced diet.
  • Balance the food you eat with physical activity maintains or improves your weight.
  • Choose a diet with plenty of grain products, vegetables, and fruits. Complex carbohydrates, fiber, vitamins, and an array of minerals are critically important for sound nutritional health. Grain products, vegetables, and fruits are excellent sources of these important types of nutrients.
Choose a diet low in fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol.
  • Choose a diet moderate in sugars. Sugars are simple carbohydrates that provide the body with a readily available supply of calories, which provide energy to our working muscular endurance fitness plan.
  • Alcoholic beverages and snack foods are principal sources of sugars and their empty calories for many college students.
  • Choose a diet moderate in salt and sodium. In the ten to 115 percent of people who possess a genetically based salt sensitivity, the dietary intake of salt (our principal source of sodium) should be monitored very carefully to prevent excessive fluid accumulation in the body leading to elevated blood pressure.

This appears in the Health Action Guide

Table 5-7 shows how healthful dietary changes can lower your risk of developing certain major diseases. The Health Action Guide offers helpful suggestions for modifying your own diet.

Definitions of Nutrition-Related Clams

  • Low fat: 3 grams or less of fat per serving per hundred grams of the food
  • Low in cholesterol: 20 milligrams or less per serving and per hundred grams of food and 2 grams or less of saturated fat per serving

Recommended Dietary Adjustments

The recommendations that follow are made with knowledge that the demands of life, including college life, will continue to force some compromises in the adoption of healthful dietary patterns.

Additional Milk Consumption

This additional intake provides needed calcium, which may reduce the incidence of hip, wrist, and vertebral fractures in the elderly adult years. Excessive caloric and fat intake can be controlled by using skim milk or low-fat yogurt and by decreasing the daily intake of all fats. For people who do not like dairy products or who are allergic to milk, calcium supplements are an alternative.

Table 5-7

Recommended Dietary to Reduce the Risk of Diseases and Their Complications

Change in DietReduce FatsControl CaloriesIncrease Starch* and FiberReduce SodiumControl of Alcohol
Reduce the risk of:
Heart disease
Gastrointestinal disease+
  • *Starch refers to complex carbohydrates provided by fruits, vegetables, and whole-grain products.
  • +Primarily gallbladder disease (fat), diverticular disease (fiber), and cirrhosis (alcohol).

Additional Protein-Rich Sources

One way to do is to eat three ounces of red meat three or four times per week. Iron obtained from red meat (called heme iron) is in its most biologically available form. Some excellent vegetable sources of iron are lettuce, endive, beets, tomatoes, spinach, green peas, green beans, legumes, and broccoli.

Good fruit sources of iron are apricots, cantaloupe, dates, prunes, and raisins. Milk products contain little iron. Vegetarians and others who eat little or no red meat should pay particular attention to their iron intake.

Iron supplements may help provide needed iron. Supplements alone do not provide the additional benefits found in the protein-rich food group, and they may cause severe digestive complications.

Additional Vitamin C and A

Foods chosen from the fruit and vegetable groups on a regular basis should include those that are good sources of vitamins C and A. The inclusion of additional vitamin C in the diet will assist in the absorption of iron from bread, cereal, and eggs.

By increasing intake in this food group, desirable increases in folacin and vitamin A can be achieved. Folacin’s role in intrauterine development and in preventing macrocytic anemia makes its increased presence in the diet of critical importance.

High levels of carotenes found in dark green vegetable aid in the production of vitamin A, a necessary fat-soluble vitamin. Eating more whole-grain cereals and bread can help you increase your carbohydrate and fiber intake.

Additional Grain Product Consumption

The Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommended that 60 percent of our total calories come from carbohydrates. Increasing the quality of whole-grain bread and cereals in the diet can make sure this recommendation is met.

Moderate Alcohol Consumption

Alcohol provides a significant amount of empty calories. This can be an important concern for alcohol users who wish to control their weight. From a health standpoint, moderation in the use of alcohol makes a lot of sense.

Nutrient Density

For many college students, the consideration of nutrient density may prompt certain dietary adjustments.

Figure 5-6 compares the nutrient density of soda to that of chocolate milk with that of soda.

Vegetarian Diets

In the sections that follow, various forms of vegetarianism will be addressed. A vegetarian diet relies on plant sources for most of the nutrients the body needs. We will briefly describe three vegetarian diets, beginning with the least restrictive in terms of food sources.

A. The nutrient density of chocolate milk
B. The nutrient density of soda

Figure 5-6 A comparison of the nutrient density of chocolate milk with that of soda.

  • Folacin (foe la sin) folic acid; a vitamin of the B-complex group; used in the treatment of nutritional anemia.
  • Macrocytic anemia (mac roe sit ick uh nee mee a)

A Food pyramid for Ovolactovegetarians

  • *Lactovegetarians can omit eggs from this pyramid.
  • +Include one dark green or leafy variety daily.
  • ++One serving of a vitamin-and mineral-enriched cereal is recommended.
  • It contains about 75g of protein and 1650 calories.
  • Base serving sizes on those listed for the Food Guide Pyramid.

Figure 5-7 A Food pyramid for vegetarians.

Ovolactovegetarian Diet

Meatlike products composed of textured vegetable protein is available in supermarkets. Soybeans are the primary sources of this textured vegetable protein.

Two relatively minor concerns associated with some ovolactovegetarian diets are those of zinc deficiency and the overuse of a wide variety of food supplements.

Vegan Vegetarian Diet

One potential difficulty is that of obtaining all of the essential amino acids. By carefully combining various grains, seeds, and legumes, amino acid deficiency can be prevented. This diet probably should not be used by children, pregnant women, and lactating mothers.

Possible ramifications of inadequate B12 intake include depression, anemia, back pain, and menstrual irregularity. Vegans often have difficulty maintaining adequate intakes of iron, zinc, and calcium6. Calcium intake must be monitored closely by the vegan.

Supplements and daily exposure to sunshine will aid in maintaining adequate levels of this vitamin. Early satiation caused by a large amount of fiber may lower carbohydrate intake to the point that protein stores (muscle mass) are used for energy.

Unbalanced and Fat Diets

An unbalanced diet might consist of a single food (like pizza) or food selections from just one or two of the five main food groups. Noticing the poor dietary practices of a friend or roommate should prompt you to look carefully at your own dietary practices

Nutrition and the Older Adult

Nutrition needs change as adults age. Age-related alterations to the structure and function of the body are primarily responsible for this. Included among the changes that alter nutritional requirements and practices are changes in the teeth, salivary glands, taste buds, oral muscles, gastric acid production, and peristaltic action.

Older adults can find food less tasteful and harder to chew. As energy requirements fall, the body gradually senses the need for less food. This gradual recognition of lower energy needs results in lessened food intake and loss of appetite in many elderly people.

  • a vegan vegetarian diet (vee gun) a vegetarian diet that excludes the consumption of all animal products, including eggs and dairy products.
  • Lactating breastfeeding or nursing. Unbalanced diet a diet lacking adequate representation from each of the food groups.

International Nutritional Concerns

Reasons for these problems are many, including the limitations imposed by weather, the availability of arable land, religious practices, political unrest, war, social infrastructure, and material and technical shortages.

  • Improve the yield of land currently under cultivation.
  • Increase the amount of land under cultivation.
  • Improve animal production on land not suitable for cultivation.
  • Use water (seas, lakes, and ponds) more efficiently for the production of food.
  • Develop unconventional foods through the application of technology.
  • Improve nutritional practices through education.

If population growth and food production are not altered in these countries basic needs will continue to be unmet.

As We Go To Press

The safety of the American food supply took center stage in August 1997. Hudson Foods disputed accusations that its production process was to blame for bacterial contamination.

Burger King decided to drop Hudson Foods as its supplier of ground beef patties, and Wal-Mart and Sam’s Club are considering such a move. The Columbus plant has been sold to a competitor and will re-open under its new ownership.

The FDA and other regulatory agencies promptly traced the source of the E. coli contamination and urged a recall; it is doubtful that an industry-based inspection system would have acted as swiftly.

Best Summary

The protein of plant origin is an incomplete protein in that any single source lacks one or more of the essential amino acids. Protein from animal sources is a complete protein;

Adequate water and fluids are required by the body on a daily basis and are obtained from a variety of food sources, including beverages. Fiber is an indigestible plant material and can be found in two forms, water-soluble and water-insoluble.

Most nutrients are absorbed in the first eighteen inches of the small intestine, at which point they enter into the venous blood drainage for eventual distribution throughout the body.

Each food group supplies specific nutrients to the diet.

Top Summary

To follow a food group-based dietary plan, people must be able to classify each food, know the number of recommended servings from each food group, and recognize the amount of food that constitutes a single serving.

The Dietary Guidelines for Americans focus on the role of fat, saturated fat, sugar, starch, sodium, alcohol, and weight management in health and disease. Ovolactovegetarian, lactovegetarian, vegan vegetarian, and semivegetarian diets represent a different form of vegetarianism.

A variety of factors contribute to malnourishment in many areas of the world. Improved food technology may not make it possible to feed the world’s population in the absence of greater efforts to control population growth.

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